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APA 7th Edition

What are you citing?

Books, eBooks, and Book Chapters

This example is a straightforward citation of a book with one author. Notice how this citation only requires four pieces of information – the author, publication date, title of the book, and the publisher name. Books may also require an editor(s), translator(s), edition, volume number, or DOI.

You can often find the publication date on the back of the title page, which is called the verso.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication) Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher name. 

Kruglanski, A. W. (2004). The psychology of closed mindedness. Psychology Press.

Click on the citation elements in the interactive below for more information on formatting book elements:

Madigan, M. L. (2018). First responders handbook: An introduction (2nd ed.). CRC Press.

Up to 20 Authors

For up to 20 authors, list each author before the title. Authors or editors’ names at the beginning of a citation are inverted. This formatting helps with the alphabetization of the References list.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., and  Author, C. C.

Suffla, S. & Seedat, M. (2021). Africa's knowledge archives, black consciousness and reimagining the community psychology. In G. Stevens & C. C. Sonn (Eds.), Decoloniality and epistemic justice in contemporary community psychology (pp. 21-38). Springer Nature.

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., Lovett, M. D., Aruguete, M. A., Bryant, L., Chappell, B., Dumper, K., Lacombe, A., Lazzara, J., McClaine, T. Oswald, B. B., Perlmutter, M., Thomas, M. D. (2020, April 22). Pschology 2e (2nd ed.). OpenStax. https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e

21 or More Authors

If there are 21 or more authors, include the names of the first 19 authors. After the 19 author use an ellipses, then add the final author after the ellipses.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.

When a book has an editor, it usually means that the chapters or articles in the book are written by different authors or by a group author. You will want to cite the specific chapter you’re using rather than the whole book. Look for the editor information on the title page. If the book has an edition, include it in the parenthesis preceding the pages numbers. It should look like this:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year of publication). Title of chapter or article. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher Name.

Suffla, S. & Seedat, M. (2021). Africa's knowledge archives, black consciousness and reimagining the community psychology. In G. Stevens & C. C. Sonn (Eds.), Decoloniality and epistemic justice in contemporary community psychology (pp. 21-38). Springer Nature. 

 

With a DOI

If you viewed a book or book chapter online, include the DOI if there is one.

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of chapter or article. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher Name. http://doi.org/ xxxxxxxx

Pious, W. L. (1961). A hypothesis about the nature of schizophrenic behavior. In A. Burton (Ed.), Psychotherapy of the psychoses (pp. 43–68). Hachette Book Group. https://doi.org/10.1037/10643-002

Without a DOI From a Database 

If you viewed the ebook through a library database or through a service you pay for, you do not need to include a URL or the database information if the ebook has no DOI. Just cite it like a print book.

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. 

Suffla, S. & Seedat, M. (2021). Africa's knowledge archives, black consciousness and reimagining the community psychology. In G. Stevens & C. C. Sonn (Eds.), Decoloniality and epistemic justice in contemporary community psychology (pp. 21-38). Springer Nature. 

Without a DOI From Somewhere Else

If you viewed the ebook on an open platform with a stable URL that anyone can access for free, include the URL after the publisher information. If there is no stable URL, cite it like a print book.

Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. URL

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., Lovett, M. D., Aruguete, M. A., Bryant, L., Chappell, B., Dumper, K., Lacombe, A., Lazzara, J., McClaine, T. Oswald, B. B., Perlmutter, M., Thomas, M. D. (2020, April 22). Pschology 2e (2nd ed.). OpenStax. https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e

If the author is listed as anonymous, put anonymous in the author name slot.

If there is no author, you can move the title to the beginning of the citation in place of the author. The publication date remains in the second position.

Book Basics

Books usually have at least 4 pieces of information - the author, publication date, title of the book, and the publisher name. Books may also require an editor(s), translator(s), edition, volume number, or DOI.

Much of the information you need will be on the title page of the book, such as the author/editor/translator, the title, and the publisher name. You can often find the publication date on the back of the title page, which is called the verso. Sometimes the publisher information is found here as well instead of the title page. 

Journal Articles

DOI’s now have a standardized, hyperlinked format in APA. Use https://doi.org in front of the number rather than only using the label, “DOI.” In most cases, if an article has no DOI you do not need to include it or the URL in the citation, nor do you need to include the database information.

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case, Vol.(Issue), xxx-xxx. https://doi.org/xxxxxxx

Feldman, K. D. (2013). Engaged anthropology on “the last frontier”. Annals of Anthropological Practice, 37(1), 113-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/napa.12020

Your goal with citations is for your audience to be able to find the resource you used for themselves. Library databases can only be accessed by members of the college and only current members (for example, you won't be able to use Xula's databases once you aren't enrolled as a student or employed by the college). Therefore, leave the database information or database specific URL off any journal article citations you found using the library. Your reader will use their own library access to find the article.

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case, Vol.(Issue), xxx-xxx. 

Mallan, K. M., Fildes, A., Magarey, A. M., & Daniels, L. A. (2016) The relationship between number of fruits, vegetables, and noncore foods tried at age 14 months and food preferences, dietary intake patterns, fussy eating behavior, and weight status at age 3.7 years. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(4), 630-659.

In most cases, if an article doesn't have a DOI you cite it as if it were a print article without the database information or database specific url. However, if you found the article in a place others can access without signing in, such as PubMed, the journal's homepage, Google Scholar, or an institutional repository, include the link at the end of the citation where the DOI would go.

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case, Vol.(Issue), xxx-xxx. URL

Cami, J. & Farre, M. (2003). Drug addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 349(10), 975-986. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jordi-Cami/publication/10583167_Drug_Addiction/links/58f39c17aca27289c21bb8f3/Drug-Addiction.pdf

Author, A. A. (date of publication). Title of article in sentence case. Journal Title in Title Case, Vol.(Issue), xxx-xxx. 

Mallan, K. M., Fildes, A., Magarey, A. M., & Daniels, L. A. (2016) The relationship between number of fruits, vegetables, and noncore foods tried at age 14 months and food preferences, dietary intake patterns, fussy eating behavior, and weight status at age 3.7 years. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 116(4), 630-659.

Journal Basics

Journal articles have extra information. You can find most of this information in tiny print at the beginning or end of the first page of the article PDF. Citations should include volume numbers and issue numbers if the journal has one. Notice that the page numbers in a journal citation do not have a pp. in front of them like a book chapter does. That’s just one of those quirky things about APA.

Magazine Articles

Your goal with citations is for your audience to be able to find the resource you used for themselves. Library databases can only be accessed by members of the college and only current members (for example, you won't be able to use Xula's databases once you aren't enrolled as a student or employed by the college). Therefore, leave the database information or database specific URL off any magazine article citations you found using the library. Your reader will use their own library access to find the article.

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of magazine article in sentence case. Name of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Volume(Issue), pages.

Stix, G. (2021). Evolution Could Explain Why Psychotherapy May Work for Depression. Scientific American Mind32(3), 16–19.

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of magazine article in sentence case. Name of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, http://xxxxxxx.

Grierson, Bruce. (2023, July 5). Certainty is a psychological trap and it's time to escape? Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/202307/certainty-is-a-psychological-trap-and-its-time-to-escape

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of magazine article in sentence case. Name of Magazine in Title Case and Italics, Volume(Issue), pages.

Stix, G. (2021). Evolution Could Explain Why Psychotherapy May Work for Depression. Scientific American Mind32(3), 16–19.

News Articles

An online newspaper article is an electronic version of an article that is also found in print. These days, it can be difficult to distinguish whether a particular article you find online is also offered in print. Generally, big print publications, such as the New Yorks Times, Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal will be cited as online newspaper articles if you found them using Google or another search engine. Try looking at the about section or the site summary in a Google search to determine if a news site only publishes online. If it does use the webpage on a news site citation.  

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of news article in sentence case. Name of News Site in Title Case and Italics. http://xxxxxxxx

Edmonds, C. (2023, July 22). A mental health crisis: An officer's gun, A too common tragedy. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/07/22/us/melissa-perez-police-shooting-san-antonio.html?searchResultPosition=1

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of news article in sentence case. Name of News Site in Title Case and Italics, page.

Edmonds, C. (2023, August 4). A mental health crisis: An officer's gun, A too common tragedy. The New York Times, A16.

Your goal with citations is for your audience to be able to find the resource you used for themselves. Library databases can only be accessed by members of the college and only current members (for example, you won't be able to use Xula's databases once you aren't enrolled as a student or employed by the college). Therefore, leave the database information or database specific URLs off any news article citations you found using the library. Your reader will use their own library access to find the article.

If you are able to find the page number, issue, or volume, include these in the citation. Otherwise, the citation ends with the Newspaper name. 

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of news article in sentence case. Name of Newspaper in Title Case and Italics, page/volume/issue if available.

Edmonds, C. (2023, August 4). A mental health crisis: An officer's gun, A too common tragedy. The New York Times, A16.

Melo, G., Valizadeh, P., & Nayga, R. M. (2023, March 27). Extra food assistance cushioned the early pandemic's blow on kids' mental health. The Conversation.

Treat news websites like webpage citations. The title of the article is italicized while the name of the news site is not.  

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of news article in sentence case and italics. Name of News Site in Title Case. http://xxxxxxxx

Dylon, S. (2023, July 22). Therapy is health care. So why won’t your health insurance pay for it? Vox. https://www.vox.com/2023/8/4/23815827/mental-health-therapy-services-health-insurance

Websites & Webpages

A website is when you are referring to an entire website and all that is in it. For example, the APA Style website (apastyle.apa.org).

A webpage is one specific page or section within a website. For example, the Spotlight on Student Researcher's of Color page on the APA website (apa.org). 

Other web sources, such as blogs and webpages on a news site also follow the webpage citation format.

If you are citing an entire website instead of a page or section, you don’t need a reference entry. Simply put the url in parenthesis after the sentence referring to the website. For example, the APA Style website has many reference examples and tutorials for you to refer to if you get stuck while citing using APA (https://apastyle.apa.org).

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of webpage. Website Name. http://xxxxxxxx

Organization A. (year, month day). Title of webpage. Website Name. http://xxxxxxxx

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, September 13). Key facts about influenza (flu). cdc.gov/flu/about/keyfacts.htm

Title of webpage. (year, month day). Website Name. http://xxxxxxxx

Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of webpage. Website Name. http://xxxxxxxx

Blog

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of blog post in sentence case and italics. Name of Blog in Title Case. http://xxxxxxxx

Webpage on a News Site

A webpage on a news site is a news article found on a news site that does not also offer a print version of the article. These days, it can be difficult to distinguish whether a news site or a particular article is also offered in print. Generally, big print publications, such as the New Yorks Times, Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal will be cited as online newspaper articles rather than webpages if you found them using Google or another search engine. Try looking at the about section or the site summary in a google search to determine is a news site only publishes online.

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of news article in sentence case and italics. Name of News Site in Title Case. http://xxxxxxxx

Dylon, S. (2023, July 22). Therapy is health care. So why won’t your health insurance pay for it? Vox. https://www.vox.com/2023/8/4/23815827/mental-health-therapy-services-health-insurance

Blogs

Blog

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of blog post in sentence case and italics. Name of Blog in Title Case. http://xxxxxxxx

Anderson, S. C. (2023, August 15). Is addiction driven by the gut microbiome? Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/mood-by-microbe/202308/is-addiction-driven-by-the-gut-microbiome